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Aviation emissions – new global deal looks likely

Government officials are negotiating a market-based mechanism to reduce emissions in the international aviation industry. Ministers from over 190 countries have gathered at the International Civil Aviation Organization’s General Assembly in Montreal to discuss and vote on a draft resolution. If passed, it will be the first industry-specific global market-based measure for CO2 emissions.
The prospects of achieving resolution are good. So far, 55 countries, including the US, China and EU member states have indicated their support for the proposal and agreed to sign-up for the initial voluntary stage. However, some states with large aviation emissions have yet to confirm their agreement and the EU has questioned how effective the measure will be in combatting climate change. A deal is expected by the end of the Assembly on 7 October.
The proposal aims to prevent the growth of aviation emissions beyond 2020 levels by requiring airlines to offset emissions with carbon credits. The mechanism would take effect on a voluntary basis from 2021, and become mandatory in 2027 with exceptions for some states which are less developed or have low aviation emissions. The offsetting obligations will be based on the sector average emission growth, and later move to incorporate the actual emission growth of individual airlines.

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Aviation emissions – new global deal looks likely

IPP procurement programme framework in South Africa

In 1998 the Government of South Africa indicated that it is an objective of the State to encourage the entry of multiple players into the generation market. This would ensure both diversification and security of electricity supply.

In 2003, a White Paper on Renewable Energy was approved in South Africa in terms of which it was stated that a target of 10,000GWh of energy is to be produced from renewable energy sources such as biomass, wind, solar and small-scale projects by 2013. Since 2011, independent power producer (“IPP”) procurement programmes have been conducted with great success in South Africa, and it is likely that the Department of Energy will continue relying on these programmes to procure electricity from IPPs. This has attracted many international and local private project developers and investors to South Africa.

In this blog post we provide an overview of the IPP procurement programme framework in South Africa.

Background

Eskom, a state-owned utility company, currently generates about 95% of electricity used in South Africa.

In line with the objectives of creating efficient, effective, sustainable and orderly development and operation of electricity supply infrastructure in South Africa, the Electricity Regulation Act 4 of 2006 (“Electricity Regulation Act”) was enacted. The Electricity Regulation Act provides that the Minister of Energy may publish determinations for new generation capacity.  In these determinations, the Minister can specify the amount of new generation capacity required to ensure the continued uninterrupted supply of electricity, the types of energy sources from which this electricity must be generated and the procurement procedure for such new generation capacity.

The Electricity Regulations on New Generation Capacity GNR.399 of 4 May 2011 (GG: 34262), published under the Electricity Regulation Act (“Regulations”), further provide that the  abovementioned determinations must set out whether the new generation capacity will be established by an IPP and who will be responsible for the procurement of the new generation capacity. These Regulations do not apply to the purchase of new electricity generation capacity and electricity by persons other than organs of state.

These Regulations also specify that the Minister of Energy must develop an Integrated Resource Plan (“IRP”) together with the National Energy Regulator of South Africa to determine long and medium-term plans for the provision of clean, reliable and cost-effective electricity. The Integrated Resource Plan was launched in 2010 and updated in 2013 (see http://www.doe-irp.co.za/content/IRP2010_updatea.pdf). This provides for a twenty year projection of electricity supply in South Africa and stipulates that 40% of South Africa’s electricity must be generated from renewable sources. The Minister of Energy issues determinations based on the new power generation requirements in the IRP.

In 2012, the Minister made determinations for the procurement of electricity from:

On 18 August 2015, the Minister of Energy published a determination for the Department of Energy to procure electricity from renewable resources.  This specified that the electricity will be procured from IPPs through one or more IPP procurement programmes, tendering processes, direct negotiations with one or more project developers or other procurement procedures.  In December 2015, a determination in respect of nuclear energy was made (see http://www.gov.za/sites/www.gov.za/files/39541_gon1268.pdf)

The REIPPP Programme is generally regarded as being one of the most successful public-private partnership initiatives in Africa and the Department of Energy refers to it as its flagship programme.

According to the “Overview of the IPP Procurement Programme” published by the IPP Office on 31 March 2015, the REIPPP Programme has resulted in the investment of approximately $14 billion in South Africa’s renewable energy sector, of which approximately 28% constitutes foreign direct investment.

Overview of IPP Procurement Programmes

Under IPP procurement programmes a competitive tender process is followed. This is structured in rolling bid-windows which allows for continued participation.

The exact bid rules for each IPP procurement programme depends on the request for proposals issued in respect of that programme.  However, generally the bid rules relate to (i) commercial, legal, financial and technical requirements, and (ii) socio-economic development criteria.

The socio-economic development criteria aim to broaden the positive impact that the IPP procurement programme will have, particularly in the area where projects will be undertaken by successful bidders.

The socio-economic development criteria include the following.

  • Local Ownership – Generally, a certain percentage of the project must be owned by South Africans. Under the REIPPP Programme of 2012, 40% of each project was required to be owned by South Africans and 2.5% of each project was required to be owned by the local communities. Local communities would normally hold their ownership through community trusts or Communal Property Associations. Under the Coal Baseload IPP Procurement Programme of 2012, 51% of each project was required to be owned by South Africans.
  • Socio-Economic Development – Bidders may be required to propose socio-economic development projects that it will contribute to if the bid is successful. Under the REIPPP Programme of 2012, the proposed socio-economic development projects varied from education, social and welfare, health care, enterprise development and infrastructure projects. Successful bidders are required to contribute a minimum of 1% of their revenue to the Socio-Economic Development projects and to submit quarterly reports to the Department of Energy on the initiatives they have engaged in.
  • Local Content – Successful bidders are required to spend a certain percentage of the project value in South Africa.

The 2015 Determinations

As indicated above, the Minister of Energy published a number of determinations on 18 August 2015.  The table below provides a summary of the amount of electricity to be procured and from which sources such electricity can be generated under each of these IPP procurement programmes.

  Gas IPP Procurement Programme 2015 Cogeneration IPP Procurement Programme 2015 Renewable Energy IPP Procurement Programme 2015
Generation capacity needed 3,126 MW 1,800 MW 6,300 MW
Source types
  • Natural gas
  • LNG
  • Coal bed methane
  • Synthesis gas
  • Shale gas
  • Any other gas type or source
  • Waste heat or furnace off gas
  • Simultaneous generation of electricity and useful thermal energy from a common fuel source
  • An energy source which is a co-product, by-product, waste product or residual product of an industrial process and/or sustainable agricultural or forestry activity
  • Concentrated solar power
  • Wind
  • Solar photovoltaic
  • Biogas
  • Biomass
  • Landfill gas
  • Small hydro (<40MW)
  • Small projects (<5MW)

The IPP office postponed the bid submission date for bids pursuant to the 2015 Cogeneration IPP Procurement Programme pertaining to its 1,800MW generation capacity from 1 October 2015 to 11 November 2015. The successful bidders of this programme have not yet been announced.

Conclusion

South Africa has an energy shortage and is required to substantially increase its generation capacity in an environmentally sustainable manner. The REIPPP Programme has been able to provide for additional energy to be fed into the grid within a reasonably short period of time. Following the success of the REIPPP Programme, the Minister of Energy has published determinations for electricity from other sources to be procured by IPP procurement programmes and has published a determination for further electricity to be procured from renewable sources.

In addition to ensuring additional generation capacity, the IPP procurement programmes will also increase the entry of multiple players in the generation market.

IPP procurement programme framework in South Africa